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The Beginner's Guide to HDTV

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Old 07-21-2007, 07:20 AM   #1  
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Default The Beginner's Guide to HDTV

My initial idea was to have a "newbie guide to HDTV" on this forum, so that many of the questions that get asked over and over again by newbies could cease to exist. Or at least, when they asked the "same questions over and over again," we could just link them to this guide instead of answering the same question like "what's the difference between lcd and plasma?" for the hundredth time.

After some feedback from some other members though, I realized that even with a newbie guide, those questions probably won't go away. And part of what makes this forum so popular is that a newbie can just pop in, ask a simple question, and people will answer him/her without any troubles.

But... I still wanted to write a newbie guide so that people who were interested in knowing more about HDTV could learn it here. I know you can search old posts and gain all the knowledge about HDTV from this forum, and you can also search the web and find a decent amount of articles on HDTV... but there still isn't any guide written by this community that is up-to-date with all the latest information on HDTV. And I think this forum is probably more knowledgeable than any magazine article because of its vast amount of diverse members who argue all the time over HDTV details that I didn't even know exist and that don't seem to ever make their way into magazine articles.

So, I'd like to write a newbie guide with everyone collectively contributing anything they can. I wrote an initial draft which you can find below... but I am new to this HDTV stuff also, and a LOT of my draft will need to be corrected. And not only will some of the technical details need to be corrected, but also some of my language so this guide is easy to read.

So please correct whatever you can.... or add anything you feel needs to be added [because everything is not covered in this article.] And even if you don't have expertise on a subject, maybe even post a question in this thread for an expert to answer and we could add the expert's answer to the Beginner's Guide.

Hopefully, eventually this can become a nice and poignant Beginner's guide to HDTV.... with the objective being that after someone read this article, they could be a near expert on HDTV and join in on any conversation in the forums with confidence [and also help newbies with simple questions in other areas of the forum.]

So here's draft #1... I will make some comments after it about what needs to be added/changed.

--------------------------------------------------------------

Glossary of HDTV terms:

http://www.highdefinitionblog.com/?page_id=276

Quick-reference guide to commonly used acronyms on the forum:

AFAIK - As Far As I Know
D* - DirecTV or Dish Network
EDTV - Enhanced Definition TV [480p]
HDD - High Definition Discs [also can mean Hard Drive]
HDTV - High Definition TV
IMO - In My Opinion
IMHO - In My Humble Opinion
FUD - ???
PQ - Picture Quality
OTA - Over-The-Air (antenna)
SAL - Stand-A-Lone HD Player
SD - Standard Definition
SD DVD - Standard Definition DVD's
SDTV - Standard Definition TV
STB - ???
UP DVD - An upconverting DVD player

And now on to the Beginner's Guide to HDTV...

------------------------------------------------------------------------

"What is HDTV?"

HDTV is High Definition Television. High Definition Television is a digital television format, which combines high-resolution video and theater like sound to create a movie theater quality TV viewing experience. It is an improved television system which provides approximately six times the resolution of existing television standards, and which displays programs on a wider screen than standard television (16x9 as opposed to the conventional 4x3). It also provides audio quality approaching that of compact discs.

Now, there are many different formats HD can come in. These include 720p, 1080i, and 1080p. The 720 and 1080 numbers refer to the number of lines displayed vertically on the screen [with a bigger number meaning a better picture], and the "p" and "i" in the names refers to "interlaced" and "progressive" (or how the picture is displayed on the screen.)

Progressive means that the frame - all vertical lines - are shown in one complete scan at 1/60 of a second. It's as simple as that. In fact, it's exactly how you'd expect video to be scanned if you didn't know any better!

Interlaced video is scanned from side to side, top to bottom, as well. The difference is that every 60th of a second, every other line making up the complete frame is scanned. Then, a 60th of a second later, the lines in-between the lines that have already appeared are scanned. Effectively, half the picture's vertical resolution is sent in the first 60th of a second, and the second half is sent in the second 60th of a second. Thus, a complete frame is displayed every 30th of a second.

If you were to look at an interlaced picture on a screen for a 60th of a second, you'd only see half the vertical resolution — every other line. But, because our eyes and brains conveniently offer a "persistence" effect, when you look at the screen "normally," what you actually see is something approaching full resolution. Persistence allows us to accumulate visual data from the two distinct fields, making them seem like one complete image.

What it means to the viewer in layman's terms: 1080i uses more lines to display a picture, and therefore has a higher resolution and clearer picture. However, while 720p uses less lines to display a picture, since it does not use the "interlacing" technique of displaying only half the picture per-frame, it is better for displaying fast-action sports such as football or baseball, since you never see the "interlacing" picture at work. And on some 1080i television sets, the display of some fast-moving objects can show "cross-hatching," artifacts, or choppy images because the object is moving too fast for the interlacing technology to catch up to it. Therefore, 1080i is better for still-pictures and slow moving shows, while 720p is better for fast action movies and sports.

The current highest resolution for HD is 1080p and takes advantage of both of the technologies mentioned above (1080 lines with the progressive display technology), but no TV stations transmit in this format yet and thus most mediums will not be able to take advantage of this technology just yet. Currently, if you want to take full advantage of a 1080p screen, you will need a Blu Ray disc or HD DVD with the right player.

"What kind of TV is best for HDTV?"

As they say, "beauty is in the eye of the beholder." There are many different opinions on which type of display is best for HDTV. It is truly up to the individual to decide which best suits his or her eyes. However, here is a short listing of the different types of HDTV's and the advantages they offer:

CRT or Direct-view (or tube) TVs: CRT or tube sets are the familiar TVs you see everywhere and the ones we've been using for the last 50 years or so. They're called tubes because the glass forms the business end of a cathode-ray tube. Many people do not associate the old-fashioned tube TVs with high definition programming, but many high-end CRT's can deliver a great HD picture. And CRT's can still deliver the best black level of any TV. Plus, this type of technology has been around for quite a while and sets have been proven to last a long time - while some of the newer display technologies have not been around long to enough to accurately predict their longevity. As well, CRT displays are usually the least-expensive of all the display technologies. However, there are some downsides to this display technology - for one, compared to newer technologies, CRT sets often display a softer picture because they cannot deliver as much detail. In addition to this, they suffer from more geometry errors than flat-panel TVs, which can make the horizontal and vertical lines on the screen bend [even on flat-screen tube TVs.] The biggest reason though that people don't embrace CRT as part of the HDTV revolution is a CRT's weight. A 30-inch CRT HDTV set can weigh up to 130 lbs., and most people are tired of lugging around very heavy TV sets.

Flat-Panel TVs: Flat-panel TVs are the most popular type of HDTVs, and they come in two forms - LCD [Liquid Crystal Display] and Plasma. There are many advantages to these types of display. For one, they are very thin, light, and can be easily mounted on the wall, above your fireplace, or even on the ceiling. Also, they have very sharp displays and can display great resolutions in fine detail. However, they can be a bit more expensive than the other type of display technologies. And with plasma, there is a slight danger of burn-in. For a more detailed explanation of these types of displays, and the difference between plasma and LCD - please refer to the question below called "What is the difference between LCD and Plasma displays?"

Rear-Projection TVs: Rear-projection TVs provide the most bang for your buck in the HDTV market, because you can purchase a large rear-projection TV for a relatively little amount of money. Rear-projection sets start at around 37 inches, with the most popular sizes being in the 50"-60" range. There are a number of different types of rear-projection though, including: CRT-based rear projection, DLP-based, LCD-based, and LCoS-based. And there are numerous differences between each different type of rear-projection TVs. Overall though, rear-projection TVs usually do not have as great of a viewing-angle as other types of TVs, and although they are not quite as bulky as regular tube TVs, they are not as slim as their flat-panel cousin. And, some DLP-based sets may exhibit a rainbow effect [this is where people see a brief streak of colors on the screen while watching a program.] And LCD-based or LCoS-based rear-projection sets do not deliver the best black levels.

Front-Projection (Projector) TVs: These are not technically TVs, but rather projectors [as used in movie theaters all across the nation]. They can provide the biggest screens, easily filling up a 100-inch wall. But they are not for everybody, and require quite a bit of preparation to use one [along with a quite a bit of cost.] First of all, most people will want to dedicate an entire room to the projector, and dedicate an entire wall for the projectors use [which may be painted with a special paint to enhance the projector's image, or you may also purchase a special screen to place over a wall.] Also, many people seek professional installation when buying a projector. If you're a hard-core movie fan though, this is the closest thing you can get to having a movie theater in your home.

"What is the difference between LCD and Plasma displays?"
Although LCD and Plasma displays may look very similar in the stores, there are many difference between the two technologies. For one, LCD's weigh less than plasmas, and give off less heat than plasmas. Also, LCD's have no risk of burn-in ["burn-in" is when a static image is displayed on your screen for a long time, and even after the image is removed from your screen, you can still a "ghost image" of the static image on your screen for the rest of the time you own your set.] However, burn-in on plasma is usually exaggerated and many people confuse "burn-in" with "image retention." Image retention is similar to burn-in, except that the "ghost image" goes away quickly either after a few seconds, or once a new, bright image is displayed on the screen. And plasmas usually display a great deal of image retention because of the technology used to bring the picture to the screen. However, image retention is normal and nothing to worry about when you own a plasma. And most plasma owners use what they call a "break-in period" when first purchasing their TV to help reduce the risk of burn-in. This break-in period usually lasts 100 hours, and during this period the user should not view any programming that does not fill in the whole screen, they should not view any programming that has static images [such as bright station logos or tickers at the bottom of screens], and they should turn down the settings on their TV [especially the brightness and contrast to about the "medium" or "mid" level of their TV's settings range.]

Plasma usually deliver better black levels than LCD, and many movie-lovers swear by plasma because of their superior black levels when delivering major motion pictures. Though, some recent advancements in LCD technology has allowed newer high-end LCD sets to display black levels even better than some of their plasma predecessors. However, at the moment, an average plasma display will display better black levels than the average LCD display.

Currently, LCD displays account for almost 75% of all HDTV sells. Thus, the market is certainly embracing the LCD format. In a nutshell, plasmas have gotten a reputation for being "temperamental" and LCD has been given a reputation of being very user-friendly [but with not as good of a picture as plasma.] Thus, salespeople usually recommend the LCD to the non-tech-savvy public, and this is believes to be one of the reasons it is selling so well. Though, both the points of the plasma being temperamental and the LCD not giving good black levels are usually over-exaggerated. And with advancing technology, burn-in on plasmas and bad black levels on LCD are becoming less of problems.

It is ultimately up to the user to decide which set is best for them personally, and it is highly recommend that you should see both of the sets in-person before deciding on which format is best for you.

"What is the difference between Blu Ray and HD DVD?"
Blu Ray and HD DVD are two formats that are competing to be the next standard High Definition disc [and trying to replace the regular DVD.] They are not compatible with each other, and one disc from one format will not play in the other format's disc player. There are plans for "dual-format players" in the future that will play both discs from both formats. But currently, if you buy a Blu Ray player, you will have to buy Blu Ray discs. Or if you buy an HD DVD player, you will have to buy HD DVD discs.

And although you would think that with both of them being "high definition discs," that they would be very similar, but in fact... they are very different. The differences start in the way they were developed:

First of all, both formats use a blue laser to read the discs, as opposed to the red laser used to read regular DVD's. The blue laser has a shorter wavelength, and thus allows for it to read more data in a short area of space. However, the disc used to store data for each format is difference. The Blu-ray disc has a tighter track pitch (the single thread of data that spirals from the inside of the disc all the way out—think grooves on a 12-inch vinyl), so it can hold more pits (those microscopic 0s and 1s) on the same size disc as HD DVD even with a laser of the same wavelength. The differing track pitch makes its pickup apperatures different - thus making the two pickups technically incompatible even though they using similar lasers.

Blu Ray discs also use a different thickness of surface layer compared to the HD DVD (0.6mm on HD DVD's compared to 0.1mm on Blu Rays.) And this thinner surface on Blu Ray discs makes Blu Ray discs more expensive to manufacture. And because of the thinner surface, Blu Ray discs do not share the same thickness of surface layer as the regular DVD's. And machines that make regular DVD's must be specially modified in order to reproduce Blu Ray discs, and this modification is a pricey process. Thus, Blu Ray discs cost more to manufacture, but hold more data than an HD DVD disc. (A single-layer HD DVD disc can hold up to 15 GigaBytes (GB), while a single-layer Blu Ray disc can hold up to 25 GB. And a dual-layed HD DVD disc can hold up to 30 GB, while a dual-layer Blu Ray disc can hold up to 50 GB.)

Another big difference between the two is movie studio support. Blu Ray has more major studio support than HD DVD. The movie studios that are exclusive to Blu Ray are Disney, Columbia (Sony), Twentieth Century Fox, and MGM. The only major movie studio that is exclusive to HD DVD is Universal. And Warner Brothers and Paramount are format neutral. Though, if one format should win, it is expected that all major studios would then support the winner of the format war [whether it be Blu Ray or HD DVD.]

A third big difference between the two formats is price. HD DVD players start at around $250, while the least expensive Blu Ray player is $460 [though the most popular Blu Ray player is the PS3 which is priced around $500 right now.] Though, there are some issues with the current Blu Ray players. For one, Sony has yet to set a standard for Blu Ray compatibility, and many first-generation and second-generation Blu Ray players may not be able to play future Blu Ray titles. This means that a consumer could spend from $500-$1000 on a Blu Ray player that won't work for them in the future. This happened because Sony released Blu Ray before it was a finished product, in order to compete with HD DVD. The makes of HD DVD, however, have set a standard compatibility for their discs and players from day one, and all of their players will work with all current and future HD DVD's.

The good news is that Sony has set a date of 10/31/07 for all new Blu Ray players introduced to be "Profile 1.1" and compatible with all future release. However, this does not necessarily mean if you buy a Blu Ray player after 10/31/07 that you are safe, as the rule only states that Blu Ray Players INTRODUCED after that date need to be Profile 1.1 compatible, and stores may still have only Profile 1.0 players on the shelves after 10/31/07. Thus, it is recommended that if you buy a Blu Ray player, you either wait or make sure that the player is Profile 1.1 so you can be sure your Blu Ray player will continue to work with future releases.

Another difference between the players is ethernet connections. HD DVD requires all of their players to have ethernet connections. This not only allows HD DVD discs to include special extras that include internet interactivity, but also allows HD DVD players to download firmware updates in order to keep the player technically up-to-date. Some blu ray discs do have ethernet ports, but it is not a requirement of Blu Ray players.

One other difference between the two formats is the compression schemes they use encode movies on disc. Technically, both formats can use the same CODECs [enCOding/DECoding] for playing movies, but the makers of each format recommend different CODECs to their studios to encode movies in. The Blu Ray mainly uses the MPEG-2 CODEC to encode movies, which is the same CODEC used to store movies on regular DVDs. While the HD DVD mainly uses the VC-1 CODEC to encode movies, which is an evolution of the conventional DCT-based video codec design also found in MPEG-2. According to various sources, the VC-1 CODEC is typically judged best in subjective quality testing with other CODECs.

Last edited by mswoods1; 07-21-2007 at 07:34 AM..
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Old 07-21-2007, 07:25 AM   #2  
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Alright, some notes after writing it:

-Remember, a lot of tech specs may need to be corrected. Please feel free to do so. I just wrote the draft to get everyone started, but I'd like everyone to be involved.

-I wrote the Plasma vs. LCD, and the Blu Ray vs. HD DVD sections almost completely by memory, thus a lot of it may be redundant and incomplete.

-Some of the language needs to be cleaned up and made easier to read. Please feel free to play editor on me.

-I know there are some audio tidbits missing from HD DVD vs Blu Ray section, but I'm not an audiophile and couldn't think what they were.

-I want to add later that a 1080i signal and 1080p signal will look the same on a 1080p set, but couldn't find proper section for it.

-I didn't write much on televisions other than LCD or Plasma because I don't know much about the other types of TVs... but anyone feel free to write more about the other types of TVs.

-There should maybe be a section on audio systems, but I am no audiophile and don't even understand the difference between the new DD+ lossless audio and the old audio. What does lossless even mean? Will lossless make a difference on my analog 5.1 system?

-Need to add some stuff about Profile 1.3 HDMI, but I'm not sure what's the big deal about 1.3 HDMI stuff... if I remember correctly, 1.0-1.2 will handle 1080p fine, and 1.3 is just for future 1440p... but none of our players [blu ray or hd dvd] will handle 1440p anyway. Why is 1.3 important?

-I'm sure there's more, because I just scratched the surface... so let me know what we should add... Blu Ray guys may have some stuff to add because I'm sorta biased towards HD DVD, but I would like the guide to be unbiased.

Last edited by mswoods1; 07-21-2007 at 07:31 AM..
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Old 07-21-2007, 10:57 AM   #3  
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Quote:
-Need to add some stuff about Profile 1.3 HDMI, but I'm not sure what's the big deal about 1.3 HDMI stuff... if I remember correctly, 1.0-1.2 will handle 1080p fine, and 1.3 is just for future 1440p... but none of our players [blu ray or hd dvd] will handle 1440p anyway. Why is 1.3 important?
One issue is color depth that 1.3 will carry. Earlier versions were limited to 24 bit color information, but 1.3 allows for up to 48 bit color information. From my glossary:
Quote:
Color Depth
This refers to the number of unique colors a given system can reproduce or convey. In the digital realm it will define the number of bits used to define each pixel. For example, 24 bit systems can define 16.7 million unique colors and the new HDMI 1.3 specification allows for 30, 36 and 48 bit color depth allowing billions of unique colors. Theoretically this will allow for improved contrast ratios and better color transitions when displays are also capable of the increased color depth.
Bear in mind however there are very few displays that will allow for such color depth. Most are limited to about 16.7 million colors.
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Old 07-21-2007, 12:10 PM   #4  
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maybe add, "SQ" sound quality or "AQ" audio quality, not sure which is prefered ? I see the "SQ" more often though, for what it's worth.

Looks awesome to my eyes, from a purely novice point of view of course. I wouldn't really know much about the "facts" unless they are in front of me.

Good job mswoods ! Alot of thought and time into it.

Peace
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Old 07-21-2007, 12:47 PM   #5  
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Good job - again Kudo's on the work and effort.

These will complete the abbrev.:

FUD - Facts Un-Determined (nicest way to put it)

STB - Set Top Box (CBL or SAT receivers)

Here is a link for you to read about Deep Color - the next upgrade to HDTV (if it ever comes) - the HDMI 1.3 thing.

http://www.hdmi.org/pdf/HDMI_Insert_FINAL_8-30-06.pdf

Last edited by Lee Stewart; 07-21-2007 at 12:49 PM..
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Old 07-21-2007, 12:51 PM   #6  
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...HTIB-Home theatre in a Box

and one I just learned...J6P-Joe Six Pack !
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Old 07-21-2007, 01:09 PM   #7  
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FUD means Fear Uncertainty and Doubt.

It was originally coined to describe Microsoft's marketing practices.
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Old 07-21-2007, 01:13 PM   #8  
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Quote:
Originally Posted by PenGun View Post
FUD means Fear Uncertainty and Doubt.

It was originally coined to describe Microsoft's marketing practices.
I like my description better because I think it applys better here at HDF. - I can see where your description would DEFINITELY apply to that M$ issue.

When we yell FUD here, it always seems to coencide with a poster trying to push opinions off as facts. . . just MHO
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Old 07-21-2007, 03:16 PM   #9  
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Those internet shorthand acronyms are a different breed of stuff than the HDTV acronyms and should be kept separate, imo.

imo = in my opinion.

A new on for me is the slash:

/is used instead of ps.
//is used in place of pps.

But unless you are into texting and chat rooms, I feel it is better to go ahead and spell it out for most cases. btw I only use a few internet "shorthands" with the imo being the one I use most, sometimes imho.

btw = by the way, by the way.

/imho = in my humble opinion
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Old 07-21-2007, 04:12 PM   #10  
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And then there is the showstopper . . STFU
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Old 07-21-2007, 11:26 PM   #11  
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Quote:
Originally Posted by PenGun View Post
FUD means Fear Uncertainty and Doubt.

It was originally coined to describe Microsoft's marketing practices.
It actually appears to pre-date Microsoft. Anyone remember the original evil empire (IBM)?

http://www.catb.org/~esr/jargon/html/F/FUD.html
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Old 07-21-2007, 11:49 PM   #12  
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I think the "original" evil empire was the "Romans" !

...but ya, IBM carried the torch for a while, as did Tesla I think ?

Peace
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Old 07-22-2007, 05:33 AM   #13  
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I thought it was the Assyrians? Who wants to bet Google will be next?
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Old 07-22-2007, 08:01 AM   #14  
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So... it doesn't seem like I can edit my original post... yikes!
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Old 07-22-2007, 08:05 AM   #15  
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And it won't let me even copy my original post... good thing i saved the draft as a word document.
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